How ISIS came to take over large parts of Iraq

26th Aug 2014

Collusion, corruption, politicization, and betrayal all plated part in the advancement of ISIS in Iraq

Sajad Jiyad

The fall of Mosul in Iraq on June 10 to the extremist group Islamic State of Iraq and Sham [ISIS] may have shocked the world but it was no surprise to many analysts who had been monitoring the increasing sophistication of the group in conducting several operations across wide territory. Nor was it a surprise to the US, with intelligence and defence officials warning for over a year that ISIS was planning to take over large parts of Iraq.

ISIS is an evolution of a group previously lead by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, under the al-Tawhid wa al-Jihad group, before becoming al-Qa’ida in Iraq, and then Islamic State of Iraq before its expansion into Syria. The extremist ideology espoused by the group belongs to a small school of thought of Sunni Islam who adhere to the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab, whom the Saudi religious authorities officially refer to in their teachings. Part of the potency of ISIS is its ability to recruit fighters from across the Arab world, and even further, to engage in suicide bombings, asymmetric warfare, and other forms of violence.

Iraq has suffered from terrorism since summer 2003, right after President Bush had declared ‘Mission Accomplished’ in Iraq. The sectarian civil strife of 2006-2007 was the most brutal time since then but 2014 is the first time that large territories have been lost to groups such as ISIS.

ISIS is sophisticated and dangerously capable. They have been able to fight on several fronts, continue to recruit foreign fighters, hold territory they gain like a standing army, relentlessly push out their propaganda with slick media productions, and become financially self-reliant through extortion and seizure of oil fields. They have co-opted Syrian and Iraqi armed groups by force, gaining more weapons, fighters, territory and experience.

But their advance in Iraq is not only due to their fighting ability. Several witnesses in Mosul and Sinjar have said that locals colluded with ISIS and supported them, accusing their own neighbours of forcing them out of their homes in the displacement that has led to over 1.5m becoming internal refugees. Rhetoric on Arab TV channels purporting that this is an ‘Iraqi revolution’ led by the tribes has attempted to disguise the fact that this is a campaign by ISIS to seize hold of Sunni Arab parts of Iraq, with an aim to seize the rest of it eventually.

The collapse of three Iraqi divisions in Mosul was caused by corruption, politicization, and betrayal. That 30,000 soldiers fled without a fight gives some insight into how ISIS has been able to take over large parts of North-western Iraq.

The outgoing Iraqi Government certainly takes some responsibility for failing to deal with this current crisis that has been building for around 2 years. But the US and other states could have stopped ISIS building up in the Syrian border area and even the fall of Mosul was preventable because they knew what ISIS were planning to do 3 days before it happened.

It was only on August 8 that President Obama decided to act, nearly two months after the fall of Mosul. He made clear that the intervention was primarily due to the risk of life for Americans in Erbil and at the US consulate there (there is a large expat oil sector workforce in Erbil).

Accusations that outgoing Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki was not inclusive enough of Sunni Arabs in his administration had been repeated both in the Arab and Western world. International assistance was conditional upon a change of leader and when this was announced with Dr Haidar al-Abadi’s nomination to the post recently the French, UK, and other nations announced they would be intervening in Iraq. The new PM was also welcome by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and other regional states who had a strained relationship with his predecessor.

While the humanitarian situation is dire, there is some hope that the improving political and military situations will lead to a change in momentum. The challenges are daunting for the incoming PM and there is some doubt that even the most capable leader will not be able to reverse the situation. But it seems the world is not ready to allow ISIS to become like the Taliban and indeed establish their own state, so have begun steps to help Iraq push them back. If ISIS is tackled at its source, then their maybe a way to reunite Iraq and defeat the most dangerous terror group in the world.

Sajad Jiyad is a London-based independent analyst and researcher on Iraq and can be followed on Twitter @SajadJiyad

 

4 Responses to “How ISIS came to take over large parts of Iraq”

klaasjeSeptember 11, 2014

Sectarian war, great.
Not as bad as them muslims killing kafurs , christians or jews.

Reply

FAROOKDecember 24, 2014

IS MUST BE TERMINATED

Reply

GenieDecember 25, 2014

The recipe of inviting trouble is to betray the Lord’s commands.
The Arabs became winners when they came to obey the Lord. They became winners because they gave up all their bad habits and embraced all the good habits which make people loveable and likeable. They were winners because their exemplary behaviour would win the hearts of whosoever came in contact with them. Thus tribes after tribes, nations after nation embraced their loveable and likeable habits. Consequently they became a mighty nation of good doers.
Today their descendents are losers. Losers in here and in hereafter. Why? They betray the spirit of the very Kalimah they recite. They used to rule over many parts of the civilised world and then the day came when they came under the rule of the autocratic Turks. Why? They betrayed the Lord.
Lets us all search our souls and ask this question as to what is the difference between those heart winning Arabs and heart losing us?
We shall all become winners when we change our habits and characteristics as did those heart winnig Arabs.
Our betrayal to Lord can be seen in our lack of response to Lord’s most vital and crucial command to come together to join hands with each other to unite while rallying round no one but the Lord. Do we see any single qiryah, qusbah or any locality from Indonesia to Morocco where people reciting the Kalima of obedience to the Lord have organised their regular coming together? Coming together to eradicate vice and embrace virtue in their thoughts words and deeds? So when people betray the Kalimah they recite by refusing to obey Lord’s such a vital and crucial command why slavery will not be their lot? Slavery will remain their lot for as long as they will do nothing to walk into the footsteps of heart warming, heart winning Arabs. The Arabs became winners without the use of violence. They became winners without organising the orgy of chopping off heads and hands. They became winners because they came together to join hands with each other in response to Lords’ command “Wah tusay moo …….. walah taferruqoo”. They remained winners for as long as they did not start creating and worshipping a human allah. And when they did they brought trouble upon themselves.

Reply

Ian Barnettt.March 16, 2015

Hmmmmmmmm clearly ”

“Collusion, corruption, politicization, and betrayal all ……..” are all part of being muslim (it’s the way I tell’em ) :-) x
Don’t forget….the Camels,Goats,Mules and Donkeys do not behave like that.

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